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One of many challenges in the conservation of biodiversity is the recent trend in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events. The Shark Bay World Heritage Area, Western Australia, endured an unprecedented marine heatwave in 2011. Catastrophic losses of habitat-forming seagrass meadows followed, along with mass mortalities of invertebrate and fish communities. Our long-term demographic data on Shark Bay's resident Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population revealed a significant decline in female reproductive rates following the heatwave. Moreover, capture–recapture analyses indicated 5.9% and 12.2% post-heatwave declines in the survival of dolphins that use tools to forage and those that do not, respectively. This implies that the tool-using dolphins may have been somewhat buffered against the cascading effects of habitat loss following the heatwave by having access to a less severely affected foraging niche. Overall, however, lower survival has persisted post-heatwave, suggesting that habitat loss following extreme weather events may have prolonged, negative impacts on even behaviourally flexible, higher-trophic level predators.
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority;
The Great Barrier Reef is a vast and spectacular ecosystem and one of the most complex natural systems onEarth. The Great Barrier Reef Region's natural beauty and natural phenomena endure, but they are showing signsof deterioration in several areas. In 2009, the Reef was considered to be at a crossroads between a positive,well-managed future and a less certain one. In 2014, it was seen as an icon under pressure, with continued effortsneeded to address key threats. Since then, the Region has further deteriorated and, in 2019, Australia is caring fora changed and less resilient Reef. The challenge to restore Reef resilience is big, but not insurmountable. However,it requires mitigation of climate change and effective implementation of the Reef 2050 Long-Term Sustainability Plan(Reef 2050 Plan).
Center For Social Impact;
The Giving Circles at Work pilot developed and trialed the use of giving circles within a workplace context. The pilot involved establishing seven giving circles within a large Australian corporate employer, with 67 employees participating as members of these giving circles. A comprehensive evaluation of the pilot was undertaken by the Centre for Social Impact at Swinburne University of Technology, in Melbourne, Australia. This report sets out the findings of the evaluation, which concluded that there is a compelling case to roll out giving circles in the workplace more widely. The report also makes a number of recommendations for how the model could be enhanced.
Queensland University of Technology;
PAFs are a type of endowed philanthropic foundation established by trust deed by a small, close group of donors, most often a family. PAFs can not undertake activities beyond funding, hence they exist to support the work of other nonprofit organisations. They provide money, property or benefits to eligible nonprofit entities (broadly, deductible gift recipient organisations). PAFs are a relatively new giving structure in Australia ( introduced in 2001 ), and have experienced strong and sustained growth both in number, and the dollar value of their combined capital and donations . Their addition to the Australian charitable sector is "arguably the single most important boost for Australian philanthropy in many decades" (McLeod, 2013, p. 2). Accountability in nonprofit organisations is broadly held to lead to learning, change and improvement (Carman, 2010). In the absence of accountability, nonprofit organisations including philanthropic foundations "have no way of knowing how well they're doing at fulfilling their mission" (p. 268). Therefore, the aim of this research was to explore the perceived nature and forms of accountability in PAFs, given concerns of limited accountability (Cham, 2014) and the minimal prior research (Coyte, Rooney, & Phua, 2013) on this rapidly growing sector.
Queensland University of Technology;
This report maps the field of ancillary funds in Australia. Public Ancillary Funds (PubAFs) are trusts that must fundraise from the general public, and make grants to approved nonprofit organisations. A majority of the individuals involved in the fund's decision- making must have a degree of responsibility to the Australian community (Ward, 2016). As stated by Ward (2012, p. 4), "the underlying concept of public funds is that the public are able and invited to contribute and the fund is operated in a public manner for public benefit". Although limited details of PubAFs are publicly available, there is no previously published data on this valuable but overlooked segment of Australian philanthropy. This report examines what is known about PubAFs and maps the field, with data from online databases and reports, PubAF websites, and interviews with PubAF managers and trustees providing extensive and useful insights. Seven taxonomic categories of PubAFs are described, and an accountability typology is proposed at a conceptual level to better understand this sector. Perceptions from PubAF managers and trustees detail how visibility and accountability within this charitable sub -sector might be enhanced, and implications for practice are noted. The eight framing questions around accountability revealed complex and inter-related patterns and practices of accountability. Most notable and novel among these findings were when PubAFs are accountable, why PubAFs are accountable, the dominance of peer-benchmarking as the standard by which PubAFs are accountable, and the emergence of organisational qualities as a way in which PubAFs are accountable. Findings also highlight a link between identity and accountability in PubAFs. There is a relationship between who we are, and how we give an account, such that the identity of an actor influences the account given. Notable emergent findings included the importance of geographic boundaries for PubAFs in shaping their giving and reflecting their mission, the varying interpretations of publicness, the importance and prominence of dyadic relationships, and PubAFs' strong future focus around sustainability and growth. For those PubAFs (typically community foundations and wealth management foundations) that have sub-funds or donor-advised funds, particular accountability issues were noted. Co-funding, or a funding arrangement whereby two or more funders combine to support a project or organisation, was common between sub -funds within a PubAF, achieving synergies and supporting and linking both their identity and accountability.
The effect of sound on the behaviour of sharks has not been investigated since the 1970s. Sound is, however, an important sensory stimulus underwater, as it can spread in all directions quickly and propagate further than any other sensory cue. We used a baited underwater camera rig to record the behavioural responses of eight species of sharks (seven reef and coastal shark species and the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias) to the playback of two distinct sound stimuli in the wild: an orca call sequence and an artificially generated sound. When sounds were playing, reef and coastal sharks were less numerous in the area, were responsible for fewer interactions with the baited test rigs, and displayed less 'inquisitive' behaviour, compared to during silent control trials. White sharks spent less time around the baited camera rig when the artificial sound was presented, but showed no significant difference in behaviour in response to orca calls. The use of the presented acoustic stimuli alone is not an effective deterrent for C. carcharias. The behavioural response of reef sharks to sound raises concern about the effects of anthropogenic noise on these taxa.
Fisheries New Zealand;
New Zealand's native dolphins are among the rarest in the world. Hector's dolphins are found in the waters around the South Island. They number some 15,000 and are classified as nationally vulnerable. Māui dolphins are found on the West Coast of the North Island. There are only around 63 of them left. They are classified as nationally critical and face a real threat of extinction. These mammals are precious taonga and we need to act now to ensure they have the best chance for long-term survival. The proposals in this consultation document draw on the latest data and expertise and give us the best picture yet of the risks to these dolphins. This information tells us that there is a range of humaninduced threats to these dolphins, including fishing, the disease toxoplasmosis and mining activities. We believe we have an opportunity to make a real difference by taking action to reduce these threats. Some of the options in this paper may have an impact on people's livelihoods. Your feedback will help us understand these impacts as well as the risks and opportunities associated with each option. We encourage you to make your voice heard.
Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation;
The Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation embarked on the Global Reef Expedition—the largest coral reef survey and mapping expedition in history—to study the coral reef crisis on a global scale. As part of the 5-year expedition, an international team of scientists traveled to the Cook Islands in 2013 to assess the health and resiliency of their coral reefs. The Global Reef Expedition: Cook Islands Final Report provides a comprehensive summary of the Foundation's research findings from the Cook Islands research mission, along with recommendations for preserving these reefs for the use and enjoyment of future generations.This report provides scientists, managers, and stakeholders with information on the status of corals and reef fish in the Cook Islands and helps further our understanding of the resiliency of these fragile marine ecosystems. Coral reefs face many threats, including pollution, climate change, overfishing, storm damage, and outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish. In order to see how these threats impacted reefs, KSLOF worked closely with local leaders, government officials, and members of the Cook Islands Marine Park Steering Committee to study the reefs. Together, they completed over 400 surveys of the coral and reef fish communities surrounding Rarotonga, Aitutaki, and Palmerston Atoll, and collected information to create over 400 km2 of high-resolution habitat and bathymetric maps of the seafloor.
The Royal Society Publishing;
Cultural transmission of behaviour is important in a wide variety of vertebrate taxa from birds to humans. Vocal traditions and vocal learning provide a strong foundation for studying culture and its transmission in both humans and cetaceans. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) perform complex, culturally transmitted song displays that can change both evolutionarily (through accumulations of small changes) or revolutionarily (where a population rapidly adopts a novel song). The degree of coordination and conformity underlying song revolutions makes their study of particular interest. Acoustic contact on migratory routes may provide a mechanism for cultural revolutions of song, yet these areas of contact remain uncertain. Here, we compared songs recorded from the Kermadec Islands, a recently discovered migratory stopover, to multiple South Pacific wintering grounds. Similarities in song themes from the Kermadec Islands and multiple wintering locations (from New Caledonia across to the Cook Islands) suggest a location allowing cultural transmission of song eastward across the South Pacific, active song learning (hybrid songs) and the potential for cultural convergence after acoustic isolation at the wintering grounds. As with the correlations in humans between genes, communication and migration, the migration patterns of humpback whales are written into their songs.
The Ian Potter Foundation;
This document summarises the key learnings for the Foundation as funder. Below are the distilled lessons from over 1000 Science, Medical Research, Health & Disability, Education, Arts, Community Wellbeing and Environment & Conservation grants acquitted by The Ian Potter Foundation between 2009 and 2017.Learnings are organised by timeframe ('before', 'during' and 'after' the grant) and grouped by themes.
The Ian Potter Foundation;
This document is intended for future applicants and grant recipients in The Ian Potter Foundation's Environment & Conservation and Science program areas. It contains the summarised learnings of all Environment & Conservation and Science grantees over the past five years.The information documented here has been taken from the final reports of Environment & Conservation and Science grantees, which were submitted to The Ian Potter Foundation following the completion of their projects.
The Ian Potter Foundation;
This document is intended for future applicants and grantees in the Education program area. It contains the summarised learnings of all the Foundation's Education grantees over the past seven years.The information documented here has been taken from the final reports of Education grantees which were submitted to The Ian Potter Foundation following the completion of their projects.