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This report considers key trends in secondary education in particularly with respect to enrollment and domestic and aid financing from an equity perspective. While many national governments and international donors have shifted their spending from primary to secondary education since the early 2000's, it is evident that unfinished business remains in regards to primary education, with the poorest and most disadvantaged still unlikely to complete the full cycle of primary education. Even when they do, many are not learning the basics, and their chances of transitioning into secondary education is much lower then their more advantaged counterparts. In order for countries to achieve the SDG4 targets by 2030, the way in which governments and international donors disburse their resources will have a huge bearing on countries being on track to ensure no one is left behind.
This background paper engages with issues of secondary education reform in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2007 and uses the MasterCard framework of questions as a template for gathering evidence. The framework seeks answers in three broad areas of reform: curriculum, assessment/examination systems and national qualifications frameworks (NQFs). It specifically invited responses to the following questions: Curriculum- What kinds of curriculum reform have occurred in SSA since 2007?- How successful has the practical implementation of new curricula been?- Given the challenges, how can resource-constrained ministries implement curriculum reform?- To what extent has a/the new curriculum promoted 21st century skills (like creativity, critical thinking, cognitive flexibility and emotional intelligence), as well as employability and entrepreneurial skills? Assessment- How successful has assessment reform been? National Qualifications Framework - What is the status of implementation of NQFs across SSA?- Have the approaches to NQF implementation promoted learning and the acquisition of skills necessary for employment?To ensure greater inclusivity, and to solicit a wide range of perspectives, we have chosen to review as broad a spectrum of publications as possible. This has meant that we have included research papers that, more often than not, would have been excluded from similar types of reviews. These include graduate students' masters and doctoral theses; and research papers published in journals that are not widely recognised. The net effect of widening the pool of sources is that many more researchers from, and working in, institutions on the continent have been referenced or included in the bibliography. The evidence gathering processes involved six linked activities: x Setting the search parameters and undertaking an electronic search. vi x Reviewing the document titles and abstracts; and sifting and excluding nonrelevant documents. x Once the primary and secondary sources have been identified, using high frequency citations to identify researchers in the field for follow up processes. x Reviewing the wider scholarship of identified scholars to gather additional 'grey' literature. x Identifying case studies, based on the analysis of these preliminary sources. x Site visits and case study write-ups Two system case studies were selected for close analysis: South Africa and Ethiopia. South Africa was selected because of its experience of three separate waves of curriculum reform in the past two decades, the extensive documentation of these curriculum reforms and as one of the first systems in the world to have introduced a national qualifications framework. Ethiopia was selected as it represents a rapidly developing country in which secondary education is likely to play a key role. It was also selected because of its recent review of its secondary education curriculum and examination system.
This paper is based on a predominately desk-based literature review on national policy frameworks, specifically targeting STEM and ICT education in sub-Saharan Africa. Two country scoping exercises were conducted in Zambia and in South Africa which provided additional grey literature and data from interviews with a range of stakeholders from policymakers to students. This is intended as a forward-looking and policy-oriented paper, tol assist the MasterCard Foundation, policy makers and the international development community in implementing high quality secondary STEM and ICT education in sub-Saharan Africa, targeting disadvantaged learners in difficult delivery contexts. The specific objectives are:- To better understand the characteristics of successful national policy frameworks for increasing access for disadvantages groups of learners, including girls, learners from poor socio-economic backgrounds and speakers of minority languages, to good quality STEM and ICT in secondary education.- To identify successful strategies used to address the data gap of student performance, teacher ability and school level resources available for STEM and ICT education.- To develop a diagnostic framework enabling policy makers to analyse their particular context and identify pressure points in the system, where targeted intervention could be particularly helpful.
Charities Aid Foundation (CAF);
This South Africa Giving 2019 report is one of an international series, produced across the CAF GlobalAlliance, a world-leading network of organisations working at the forefront of philanthropy and civil society.The series also includes reports covering Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, India, Russia, the United States,and the UK.This is the second edition of this unique collection of country reports. As the series grows we will be ableto look at trends in giving for the first time: why and how people of different ages and social groups givein different countries; the way they give and who they give to, as well as gaining a better understanding ofpeople's participation in social and civic activities beyond financial donations and volunteering.
This report is one component of a wide-ranging study on the education of secondary school teachers in sub-Saharan Africa. It informs and provides direct input into the larger study, which culminates in an Overview Report. The Overview Report is one of 13 background papers which contribute to a comprehensive study of secondary education in Africa (SEA) coordinated by the Mastercard Foundation and supported by a number of educationpartners operating across the continent. South Africa is one of four case studies selected for this research. The study's theoretical framework was developed out of the Literature Review, which also produced a set of research questions that guided the work of all components, including this case study. Data for the case study was derived from academic and other literature, as well as interviews with key role players in the field of teacher education in Rwanda. These role players include government officials responsible for teacher education on a national and/or regional basis, teacher educators responsible for initial teacher education (ITE) and Continuous Professional Development (CPD), and teacher unions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted where possible, but some actors provided information via telephonic or electronic means.
CLTS Knowledge Hub;
In order to achieve universal safely managed sanitation across Africa by 2030 the scale and pace will need to increase drastically. As the African sanitation community reassemble for AfricaSan 5 we hope the opportunity is grasped to rejuvenate commitments to those who still lack the fundamental human right of access to sanitation and hygiene facilities.This edition of Frontiers of CLTS draws on the discussions held across two regional Africa events in 2018, highlighting the challenges faced by programme implementers (both government and non-government staff) at different levels in relation to the Ngor Commitments and the achievement of universal access to safely managed sanitation. A range of initiatives are presented that show promise in addressing these challenges, along with recommended priority actions.
CLTS Knowledge Hub;
This issue of Frontiers of CLTS explores current thinking and practice on the topic of tackling slippage of open defecation free (ODF) status. It looks at how slippage is defined and identified, and at different patterns of slippage that are seen after ODF is declared. Although a considerable amount has been written on how to establish strong Community-Led Total sanitation (CLTS) programmes that prevent slippage from happening, this issue looks at how to reverse slippage that has already taken place. Note however, that at a certain level, strategies used to reverse slippage and those used in advance to set a programme up for success to prevent slippage occurring overlap.From the literature, there is little documented evidence on how slippage can be reversed; evidence and guidance tend to focus on prevention. This review begins to address this gap. Implementers are encouraged to use the proposed patterns of slippage framework and slippage factors section to understand the type and extent of slippage experienced, then use the examples in the section on tackling slippage to identify potential slippage responses.In addition to a review of current literature, in depth interviews were carried out with key informants at global, regional and country level. Key informants were selected purposively to identify experiences and innovations in tackling slippage from across the sector.Issue 14, September 2019
International Funders for Indigenous Peoples;
The use of the term "Indigenous Peoples" has historically been contentious in Africa. Many African States claim that all Africans in Africa are Indigenous. Many also argue that the use of the term "Indigenous Peoples" has negative connotations as it has been used in derogatory ways during European colonialism. Further, there are arguments that the term has also been misused in chauvinistic ways by some post-colonial African governments. However, concerted advocacy by Indigenous rights activists and their international partners has resulted in greater understanding, shifting attitudes and increasing recognition of Indigenous Peoples in the continent.
Africa Granmakers' Affinity Group;
Funders targeting support to benefit communities in Africa represent a diverse set of grantmakers targeting a broad array of priorities, according to a new report from Africa Grantmakers' Affinity Group (AGAG). In fact, more than half of the survey respondents provide support for two or more issue areas, specified populations, and/or countries or regions.The Africa Funding Landscape: A Profile of Funders Focused on Africa and Perspectives on the Field moves beyond grant dollars to capture the what, how, and why of current funding targeting Africa. The report is based on a survey of private and public funders headquartered in North America, Africa, and other regions.Among the key findings:Human rights and economic development are the top focus areas, followed closely by health and education.Children and youth and women and girls are a focus of well over half of fundersEast Africa was the top regional focus, but the top three countries of focus were South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda.Few funders headquartered outside of Africa report facing significant obstacles in supporting organizations in Africa.Funders are reasonably optimistic about the interest of other grantmakers in supporting similar priorities, suggesting potential for growth in funding targeting Africa.Respondents also cited several challenges to achieving the desired impact of funding in their focus area. Chief among them was inadequate funding. Other challenges included their lack of knowledge about the local landscape and opportunities for engagement, as well as differing priorities of funders and their grantees and "closing space" restrictions on civil society and philanthropy.
This GrantCraft case study, developed for Candid's scholarshipsforchange.org portal, explores Mastercard Foundation's Scholarship program which supports students across Africa. Working with partner organizations, the foundation provides access to secondary education and higher education for young Africans who have demonstrated leadership potential and a commitment to serving their communities.
Mastercard Foundation, together with a group of strategic partners, has initiated a research project to look at the role of secondary education in preparing African youth for the future of work, with emphasis on ensuring youth acquire the skills, knowledge, and competencies necessary to succeed in a dynamic and globalized labour market.Significant challenges remain in access, quality, and relevance of secondary education in Africa. Given the transformative potential of the growing youth population, the shifts in African labour markets, and the evolving technology and its impact on nature of work — fundamental changes in secondary education are needed to equip young people to be successful in work and in life. Only a small fraction of students in Africa complete university level studies, and with secondary school becoming more accessible, it will increasingly become the main bridge to work for most youth.Rethinking and reforming secondary education, including what young people learn andhow they learn it, is necessary to make education relevant for youth employment orentrepreneurship in a dynamic and globalized labour market.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation;
While the world has made huge economic gains over the past 50 years, this progress has been highly uneven. This is particularly acute in the agriculture sector, with many of the 500 million smallholder farmers around the world living on meager incomes and facing high levels of economic insecurity.Despite some recent innovations and advances in including smallholders as market players, there have been few cases where truly widespread, market-level, transformative change towards inclusion has been achieved.In this report, we explore the role of different kinds of capital in bending the arc of agricultural market development towards inclusive growth. We pay particular attention to how impact-focused players deploying capital that is flexible in terms of risk-return expectations can best deploy it in order to catalyze large-scale transformations towards inclusion.