PAFs are a type of endowed philanthropic foundation established by trust deed by a small, close group of donors, most often a family. PAFs can not undertake activities beyond funding, hence they exist to support the work of other nonprofit organisations. They provide money, property or benefits to eligible nonprofit entities (broadly, deductible gift recipient organisations). PAFs are a relatively new giving structure in Australia ( introduced in 2001 ), and have experienced strong and sustained growth both in number, and the dollar value of their combined capital and donations . Their addition to the Australian charitable sector is "arguably the single most important boost for Australian philanthropy in many decades" (McLeod, 2013, p. 2). Accountability in nonprofit organisations is broadly held to lead to learning, change and improvement (Carman, 2010). In the absence of accountability, nonprofit organisations including philanthropic foundations "have no way of knowing how well they're doing at fulfilling their mission" (p. 268). Therefore, the aim of this research was to explore the perceived nature and forms of accountability in PAFs, given concerns of limited accountability (Cham, 2014) and the minimal prior research (Coyte, Rooney, & Phua, 2013) on this rapidly growing sector.