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UN Environment Programme (UNEP);
Human life depends on the benefits the ocean provides for health, well-being and economic growth. But we are using the ocean's resources faster than they can naturally recover. There is a widening gap between the declining health of the ocean and the growing demand for its benefits. Securing healthy oceans and coasts to contribute to sustainable development requires widespread changes in how we manage our activities in and around coastal and marine areas. The need for change is clear as the impacts of over-exploitation, pollution, coastal development and climate change on oceans and coasts become increasingly visible.
Marine protected areas offer one of the best options for maintaining or restoring the health of ocean and coastal ecosystems, particularly when they form part of holistic policy and integrated management systems.
Strong governance that influences human behaviour and reduces impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems is essential for marine protected areas to be truly effective. This Guide provides evidence-based advice on how to use the governance of marine protected areas to promote conservation and share sustainable marine resources. It has been developed using 34 marine protected area case studies from around the world. It provides a governance framework and highlights key issues in order to address specific governance situations.
The Sustainable Development Goals and targets on oceans recognize the need to combine biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, with a clear role for people and the equitable sharing of costs and benefits.
The Guide shows how integrated governance can combine the roles of national governments, local communities, and market schemes to enhance the effectiveness of marine protected areas. There is no "one size fits all" solution. This guidance therefore provides a flexible approach to governance that can be relevant to any marine protected area.
The case studies used in the Guide cover a variety of marine protected area types, including no-take, multiple-use, small, large, remote, private, government-led, decentralized and community-led protected areas. They highlight different governance approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented to achieve conservation objectives. Further details can be found in the Case Study Compendium that supports the guide.
Global in scope, the guide recognizes the essential aspects of gender, class and ethnicity-related equality as fundamental factors to achieving sustainable development goals and delivering effective and equitable governance of marine protected areas.
People who can benefit from this Guide include planners, decision-makers and practitioners engaged in marine protected area development and implementation, or those who have a general interest in protected area governance.
Ultimately, governing the oceans in a sustainable way could see marine protected areas as a driver - not a limit - for the vital economic and social benefits that we derive from the global ocean.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
This project examines the politics motivating the expansion and institutionalization of the fields of foreign language study and American studies in the United States and internationally during the Cold War. Both fields were considered to be ancillary to the United States's assumption of an international leadership role in the postwar years, and were mobilized as front lines in the Cold War. American studies faculty taught other scholars, students, and members of the public about the nation so that they would, in turn, convey their knowledge about it to colleagues and compatriots. Language scholars, in turn, championed foreign language study as a means of resisting political isolationism. By demonstrating the myriad ways that scholars in these fields used their teaching, scholarship, and administrative efforts to complement official U.S. efforts to win "hearts and minds" around the world, I reveal how these fields functioned, in effect, as vehicles for soft power from the 1950s through the 1970s, even as they expanded the practical reach and prominence of the humanities both domestically and abroad.
Funding for adolescent girls has been gaining traction in recent years. While feminist funders have traditionally focused on women and young people, there has been a drive to put more flexible funding in the hands of girl-led and girl-centered organisations.
This evaluation reviews and assesses the With and For Girls Collective, the With and For Girls Award and the awards journey with a view to drawing out lessons from the Collective's experience to help encourage funders to increase flexible funding and other resources to girl-led and girl-centered organisations globally.
Asia Centre for Social Entrepreneurship and Philanthropy (ACSEP) in National University of Singapore, The;
This exploratory paper examines giving and philanthropy in Singapore's grassroots community when the "Pioneer Generation" was young.
Follow their journey from settling in Singapore, struggling through the Japanese Occupation, and onwards to building a new Singapore just before nationhood.
With little money and many mouths to feed, pioneers and their parents still gave generously. They helped families in their old homelands survive while building new communities in Singapore. How did they manage?
Join ACSEP Senior Research Associate Yu-lin Ooi for a discussion on the place of giving in Singapore's traditional Asian societies; how it is deeply embedded in our sense of self; and how philanthropy became part of grassroots life in Singapore.
Media Impact Funders;
With support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Media Impact Funders has been researching trends, challenges and opportunities for global media funding. The research in this report draws on a variety of sources: data from the media data map through 2015, results from a survey of leading organizations engaged in funding media-related projects around the world, analyses of existing literature and reports, and insights offered by experts across a range of media funding issues.
What Are We Doing to Middle School English Learners: Research ReportEXECUTIVE SUMMARYMiddle school students who are English Learners (ELs) quickly run out of time to develop the academic uses of English and the critical skills that will enable them to succeed in the 21st century. What are schools doing during these crucial years to promote ELs' accelerated access to academic language and grade-level, standards-based instruction? How will these students catch up and be able to compete in high school, in college, and on the job market? This study concludes that middle school programs for English Learners in California are failing students and limiting their futures in profound ways. Conducted by researchers in the Quality Teaching for English Learners program at WestEd, the study was funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Interviews with 13 school districts with the highest concentration of English Learners in the state and 64 middle schools in those districts found incoherent EL programs across districts and from school to school within districts. The use of below-grade-level materials was found to be widespread in English Learner programs, remediation rather than acceleration was common, and some schools purposely decelerated students' progress through already below-grade-level materials. On California's five-level assessment of English Learners, the California English Language Development Test (CELDT), most students (56 percent) do not progress a single level in a year's time and some even regress (California Department of Education, 2008). School districts in the study identified inadequate teacher preparation for working with English Learners as the primary challenge to these students' academic success. Yet most districts did not provide professional development that would even begin to address teachers' needs. The study also found that schools did not have mechanisms for addressing challenges that they identified. Schools identified teachers of ELs' and EL students' lack of motivation as primary challenges, yet, only six schools reported a focus on student engagement as a support they offered; none reported having a focus on teacher engagement and motivation. Similarly, lack of parental involvement was identified as a major challenge by school interviewees, but only two schools reported having a focus on involving parents. Case studies were developed from classroom observations and interviews in five middle schools that were selected by triangulation of student data (substantially higher than average EL performance on standardized measures), survey responses, and district nominations. These case studies contextualize the study findings— the major challenges schools still face and the promising practices that were found. Practices in one school especially were notable, a small, autonomous district school organized with a focus on targeted grade-level support for students, concerted outreach to parents, and ongoing collegial professional development for teachers.
Social IMPACT Research Center;
Poverty does not treat everyone equally. Women, children, gender minorities, and people of color are often the hardest hit. And while women in poverty experience the same issues that all people in poverty experience—income inequality, unemployment, poor health, violence, trauma, and more—the odds are often uniquely stacked against them in gendered ways.
There are 6.5 million women. and an estimated 50,000 trans people living in Illinois. They are a driving force in our economy and care for our children, sick, and elderly, and yet continue to face discrimination and inequitable opportunities. This year's annual report on poverty in Illinois shows how gender, gender identity, and gender norms shape experiences of poverty for women and gender minorities—and how women who have other marginalized identities experience even more inequity. If we want to dramatically reduce poverty, improving the well-being of women— particularly women of color—would deliver the biggest return.
This report aims to make a small contribution to the above challenge by compiling practical cases of marine and coastal management from different regions that have integrated a gender perspective in their design, implementation and evaluation, at community, project and policy levels. The report aims to draw out practical lessons and recommendations from the case studies that can be useful for policy makers and project managers involved in integrated coastal and marine planning.
Philanthropy for Social Justice and Peace;
This is the second paper in PSJP's Defining Key Concepts series and it looks at the concept of 'leadership' in development and philanthropy. (The first paper, published in October 2018, looked at the concept of Dignity.) Although widely used, and viewed as an important ingredient in successful philanthropy and development, there is no common understanding of what people mean by the term leadership or how its value is demonstrated in practice. In March 2018, when PSJP ran an exploratory webinar for civil society practitioners to identify hot topics they wanted to discuss, leadership was identified because people said that they were unclear about its role.
This research takes a holistic approach to considering the consequences of marine plastic pollution. A semi-systematic literature review of 1191 data points provides the basis to determine the global ecological, social and economic impacts. An ecosystem impact analysis demonstrates that there is global evidence of impact with medium to high frequency on all subjects, with a medium to high degree of irreversibility. A novel translation of these ecological impacts into ecosystem service impacts provides evidence that all ecosystem services are impacted to some extent by the presence of marine plastic, with a reduction in provision predicted for all except one. This reduction in ecosystem service provision is evidenced to have implications for human health and wellbeing, linked particularly to fisheries, heritage and charismatic species, and recreation.