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This report provides a summary of the status of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in schools in South Asia. It describes the context for MHM in schools and recent progress in implementation of MHM services. It identifies progress and gaps in achieving sustainable and inclusive MHM services in schools at scale and draws together opportunities for further promoting and mainstreaming MHM in schools in South Asia.
This summary is accompanied by:* Eight country snapshots that provide a brief overview of the status of MHM in schools in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.* A synthesis report on the overall status of MHM in schools in South Asia. The analysis is based on an extensive literature review and key informant interviews with MHM practitioners and advocates in each of the eight South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member countries and working at the regional or global level.
In Asia, access to drinking water is a major issue because of the intrusion of saline groundwater in many areas. Water containing a high concentration of salts is unsuitable for human consumption. The situation is expected to get worse as a result of climate change. This report suggests the development of a 'road map' for scalable, low energy-input solutions for small-scale desalination.
There is increasing recognition that menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is a multi-sectoral issue that requires integrated action, particularly from the education, health and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sectors.
Numerous studies have shown that the lack of MHM-friendly facilities and support for schoolgirls and female teachers is a barrier to their full participation in school and thus to quality education.
The South Asian Conference on Sanitation (SACOSAN) and WASH in Schools International Learning Exchange (WinS-ILE) platforms have played a significant role in mobilising action on this critical issue. UNICEF and WaterAid are among the organisations that have incorporated menstrual hygiene (MH) and MHM into WinS programmes in order to help girls and women overcome stigma and marginalisation.
These reports detail the status of MHM in schools in South Asia. They identify progress and gaps in achieving sustainable and inclusive MHM services at scale, and draw together opportunities for further promoting and mainstreaming MHM in schools across South Asia.
Asian Venture Philanthropy Network (AVPN);
AVPN has identified the need for a comprehensive overview of the Asian philanthropy and social investment landscape to offer social investors a guide to the opportunities for social investment in Asia. The Social Investment Landscape in Asia will be an invaluable resource for funders and resource providers as they assess the opportunities and challenges for philanthropy and social investment in the region. It is designed to be a guide for both new social investors looking to enter the Asian market and existing social investorsexploring cross-border or cross-sector opportunities within the region. The Landscape is another way to further AVPN's mission to increase the flow of financial, human and intellectual capital to the Asian socialsector.
The report provides a holistic view of the current and emerging philanthropy and social investment landscape in Asia. It also features in-depth profiles of 14 Asian regions which include:
- An overview of key demographic and macroeconomic conditions
- Key development issues facing the country
- Background and context to the social economy in the region
- Overview of the legislative environment
- Key social investors, recent developments and investment trends
- Opportunities, challenges and recommendations
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN);
Plastic has penetrated everyday life, and the disadvantages of plastics are becoming more and more visible: large quantities of plastics leak into rivers and oceans, with adverse effects to marine ecosystems and related economic activities. This report is one of the first of its kind to quantify primary microplastics leakage and to demonstrate that these primary microplastics are globally responsible for a major source of plastics in the oceans.
Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council;
This report summarizes the sanitation and hygiene hopes and aspirations of thousands of women and men of different ages and physical ability, across rural and urban areas in eight South Asian countries. In these countries, over a billion people are without safe sanitation. They represent individuals and groups rarely heard because they are seldom asked what their constraints are, what they need, how they cope and how they might design services differently to enable universal access and use.
Open Society Foundations;
Despite the fact that access to education has dramatically increased over the past decade, 57 million children do not currently have access to education, and many of those who do receive limited, low-quality services.
Recent estimates have shown that the stagnation of aid and inflation has meant that the funding gap needed to provide basic education for all children and adults has increased from $16 billion to $26 billion. In this context, impacting investing, which uses the tools of commercial capital deployment for social good, has emerged as a potential tool to support education access, equity, and quality.
This study maps the emerging landscape of education impact investing, with a view to identify potential areas for intervention by investors. It describes the characteristics of impact investment, including sources of capital, investor profiles and preferences, and areas of investment. Its focus is on investments that broaden access to quality education, especially for the most vulnerable populations.
This study, conducted by D. Capital Partners, is part of the Open Society Education Support Program's efforts to identify innovative financing mechanisms and approaches that can increase the availability and allocation of resources for education systems.
UK Department for International Development (DFID);
This document presents research on womens economic empowerment and growth in low income countries. The joint programme will deliver policy-relevant research on critical questions faced by decision makers in improving the economic lives of women in LICs, with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The funds will be spent on commissioning competitive research calls to: (i) Generate robust evidence on the barriers that lock women out of economic opportunities, policy options to address these barriers; how women's economic empowerment enhances growth; how growth delivers sustainable economic benefits for women and girls and how rapid growth might help erode gender-based constraints on women and girls. (ii) Strengthen the ability of southern researchers to undertake rigorous research and engage with policy-makers through structured support by IDRC, mentoring from Advisors, south-south learning events, and co-authorship of research papers. (iii) Enhance research uptake by policy-makers, through syntheses of findings, policy briefs, and opportunities for policy-makers to engage with researchers.
Impact Investment Shujog;
Shujog's Research provides an overview on the operational models, innovations, social impact, and market size and trends of the health sector in both South and Southeast Asia.
Impact Investment Shujog;
This report provides a brief insight on the value chain of the Social Enterprise (SE) vocational training sector in both South and Southeast Asia, highlighting the sector's social impact, innovation, sustainability, and market trends.
This summative evaluation was commissioned by OGB to cover the full 7-year period of the regional "We Can" campaign. Launched in late 2004, with the goal of 'reducing the social acceptance of violence against women', the campaign started in six South Asian countries - Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka - but has since spread to Indonesia, the Netherlands and British Colombia in Canada. A small, external team had a total of some 120 woman-days spread over three months to address a complex set of evaluation questions. The conclusions presented are based on rich - if somewhat incomplete - internal documentation and primary data gathered in key informant interviews, workshops, and field research in India and Nepal. This realist, utilisation-focused evaluation centres on key aspects of the campaign identified with the users of this evaluation, to serve accountability and learning purposes.
IRC International Water and Sanitation Center;
Summarizes papers and case studies about promoting hygiene in South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and Africa. Synthesizes lessons learned, including: know the focus groups, ensure opportunities for change, and enable and motivate good hygiene practice.