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International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN);
Plastic has penetrated everyday life, and the disadvantages of plastics are becoming more and more visible: large quantities of plastics leak into rivers and oceans, with adverse effects to marine ecosystems and related economic activities. This report is one of the first of its kind to quantify primary microplastics leakage and to demonstrate that these primary microplastics are globally responsible for a major source of plastics in the oceans.
Impact Investment Shujog;
This research paper seeks to understand and map current financial funding flows to integrated coastal management (ICM)-related sectors across the grants and investment capital spectrum. The range of funding comprises donors (both bilateral and multilateral), foundations, and corporate social responsibility initiatives at one end, and development finance institutions (DFI), corporations, impact investments and commercial investors, at the other.
In collaboration with PEMSEA, Shujog's research identifies regional and country-level trends in ICM funding across 10 related coastal and marine sectors, and offers recommendations for increasing investments in these sectors.
This report looks at the Service Delivery Assessments (SDAs) that were carried out in seven countries in East Asia and the Pacific. The SDAs looked at rural and urban water supply, as well as rural and urban sanitation. The assessements are a means to determine whether access trends and available funding are sufficient to meet sector targets and to identify specific issues that should be addressed to ensure that finance is effectively turned into sustainable services.
This paper sets out findings from WaterAid's research in East Asian states on the political economy of sanitation and hygiene services that delivered total coverage within a generation. The purpose of this research is not to claim blueprints for success; the specifics of each case show the contextual nature of sanitation transformation. However, the intention is to galvanise and frame the emerging dialogue in the sanitation and hygiene sectors in how to achieve the necessary radical 'step-change' in progress, to deliver universal access to services by 2030.
The economic crisis in East Asia shows no sign of abating. Far from resolving the region's problems, IMF 'rescue' measures have exacerbated their severity, contributing to an economic collapse which parallels in scale the Great Depression of 1929. Real wages have collapsed, remittances to poor rural areas have fallen, and access to basic services is deteriorating. Industry and agriculture alike have been crippled by a credit squeeze. The end result is that the welfare gains built up over three generations of rapid and equitable growth are being destroyed.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
In their 2006 Annual Review of Sociology article, sociologists S. Philip Morgan and Miles G. Taylor affirm that global demographic concerns in the second half of the twentieth century have shifted from rapid population growth to declining, sub-replacement fertility. The phenomenon of low fertility nowadays not only exists in Western Europe and North America but has also spread to the developing world. According to world demographic data, more than half of the global population now lives in countries with fertility at or below the replacement level. To explain the forces that have resulted in declining fertility, Morgan and Taylor develop a framework that covers the theories of fertility transitions from high levels to low. They offer a list of the factors that are closely related to fertility change, including economic, ideological, institutional, and technological (Morgan and Taylor 2006: 385). In spite of their effort to build a comprehensive scheme for understanding declining fertility around the world, Morgan and Taylor have difficulty 2 accommodating the fertility transitions of East Asia -- an area where regional fertility dropped from 5.5 in the 1950s to replacement level in the 1980s (Taiwan and South Korea) and 1990s (China) -- within the existing theories. Thus, the authors propose another explanatory category: path-dependence, which emphasizes distinctive national contexts (Morgan and Taylor 2006: 392). The need to come up with this new analytical category -- path-dependence with idiosyncratic explanations -- has two implications. First, it reveals the shortcomings in the sociological literature of a systematic understanding of fertility change in non-Western areas. Second, it also suggests the potential to distill the dominant forces of fertility change from the distinctive historical trajectories of non-Western states.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation;
The objective of this study, commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, is to assess the potential market for using microfinance in the water and sanitation sector, and to identify specific opportunities for potential learning, investment, and support. This report focuses on these opportunities and suggests measures that are needed for sustainable scaling up, which can be supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other development institutions.
Examines the history of the debate surrounding how population growth affects national economies. Looks at specific regions of the world and how their differing policy environments affect the relationship between population change and economic development.